worker bee manchester

A newly hived swarm on bars (top bar hive) or empty foundation (Langstroth box hive) will often be fed sugar water, which they can then rapidly consume to create wax for new comb. Pollen carried on their bodies may be carried to another flower where a small portion can rub off onto the pistil, resulting in cross pollination. 793 likes. This is a pheromone given off by the queen. Flies, on the other hand, have only two functional wings. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. Tens of thousands of workers were striving like bees in the creation of the world’s first industrial city. Worker bees occur in many bumble bee Bombus species other than honey bees, but this is by far the most familiar colloquial use of the term. 6.00. coming soon We cannot express how impressed we are with the claims handling and the quality of service they provide. A free inside look at company reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees. Part of Endemol Shine Group. It must be packed firmly into comb cells and mixed with a small amount of honey so that it will not spoil. Ethical Tea & Coffee, based in the heart of Manchester we ship our teas and coffees all over the uk. The symbolic reference became so popular that the Worker Bee was incorporated in Manchester’s coat of arms in 1842. They build the comb from wax extruded from glands under their abdomen. They will be carried some distance from the hive by mortuary bees. The Manchester Worker Bee has been an emblem for the city since the Industrial Revolution and a symbol of Manchester’s hard work, resilience and unity. Attacking bees aim for the face by sensing regions with high levels of carbon dioxide (like mosquitos). Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. When workers add enzymes to the propolis, the combination has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Manchester’s main symbol, evident throughout the city, was adopted in 1842 by the newly-created council. [5] They direct airflow into the hive or out of the hive depending on need. Visit Manchester and you will see the symbol as street art on buildings, in shops across the city and come across many of its residents bearing their own bee tattoos. We are a Manchester based tea & coffee company supplying wholesale & retail products to both businesses & consumers. From our sales we … There is nothing more symbolic of the city of Manchester, than the worker bee. Guard bees will stand at the front of the hive entrance, defending it from any invaders such as wasps. The worker bee is an enduring symbol of the city; born out of the Industrial Revolution when Manchester was abuzz with mass production activity. We are delivering every Friday and Saturday night, free delivery within 1.5 miles of SK2, £3 charge over this distance. If you'd like to add to the deal above, starters are £4, all pizzas are £6 and desserts are £3.50. Dead bees and failed larvae must be removed from the hive to prevent disease and allow cells to be reused. Guard bees of the species Tetragonisca angustula and Schwarziana quadripunctata are examples of eusocial bees that have been observed hovering at their nest entrances, providing more protection against intruders.[6][7]. Pollen brought into the hive for feeding the brood is also stored. Mint gifts for others and just as good if you're treating yourself to a new Beanie. Unique to the city, it has been an iconic part of Manchester’s coat of arms since the 1800s. Four sets of wax glands, situated inside the last four ventral segments of the abdomen, produce wax for comb construction. When the hive is in danger of overheating, these bees will obtain water, usually from within a short distance from the hive and bring it back to spread on the backs of fanning bees. In this case, the venom bulb stays with the stinger and continues to pump. During its 14 days as a pupa, sealed in a capped cell, it grows into a worker (female) bee, emerging on the 21st day. Quote 'Worker Bee' and you'll get 15% off any order placed in November. And now, size?, sportswear giants Nike and We Love MCR Charity are collaborating to launch an exclusive new rendition of the classic Air Force 1, inspired by the symbol. [11][12] It was adopted as a motif for Manchester during the Industrial Revolution, at a time when Manchester was taking a leading role in new forms of mass production, and symbolises Mancunians' hard work during this era and Manchester being a hive of activity in the 19th century.[13][14]. Mancunians have worked hard to make this place thrive. At the same time, Manchester City Council unveiled its Latin motto: Concilio et Labore, “With diligence and hard work”, a phrase derived from the Biblical book of Ecclesiasticus. Manchester’s bee is a worker bee, reflecting a city made by the workers; made by the people, not a city that has grown from royal patronage or easy natural resources. Manchester was the first city to pioneer a new type of work – mass production. Workers are nevertheless considered female for anatomical and genetic reasons. The number of guards varies from season to season and from species to species. The life span is 1-2 months in summer and can be up to 6-8 months over autumn and winter. Traditionally, they represent the city’s energy and sense of … Whether a larva becomes a worker or a queen depends on the kind of food it is given after the first three days of its larval form. Our team finds the CCMSI employees, system and services to be fast and efficient. Four days in iconic London and Manchester. Although the life span of a worker bee is longer than that of a drone, it is generally only a few months, and rarely can survive a year. The bee denotes Mancunians’ hard work ethic and the city being a hive of activity. The worker bee can be found on the side of the heel of the light-tan shoes, with a … Bee enamel pin badge in Yellow + Black + Grey enamel Perfect for a Mancunian as the symbol of Manchester is the Worker Bee Perfect for a beekeeper or bee gift Please note • ManBeeCo is a small MCR business that began back in 2013 - we have stocked this item since 2015 - none of our range has been designed specifically for or after the Manchester attack Great lapel detail Metal pin badge with … Yet, even more important is their incidental role in spreading queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) throughout the hive. Dr. Terrill is Associate Dean in the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions, and Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. An often-repeated phrase is that “everyone in Manchester is as busy as bees.”. High quality Manchester Bee gifts and merchandise. Mature honey, sufficiently dried, is sealed tightly with wax by workers deputized to do this. Queen attendants take care of the queen by feeding and grooming her. In most common bee species, worker bees are infertile due to enforced altruistic kin selection,[8] and thus never reproduce. High quality Manchester Worker Bee gifts and merchandise. Worker bees fan the hive, cooling it with evaporated water. We hold registered trade marks for various iterations of the bee. Wax bees build cells from wax, repair old cells, and store nectar and pollen Following the May 2017 terror attack at Manchester Arena, the bee took on a new resonance and was reinforced as a symbol of civic pride in the city. Worker bees in the cleaning phase will perform this cleaning. The Manchester bee represents the city’s hardworking spirit and tireless work ethic, as well as reflecting how the city and the people who reside here have a strong sense of unity. This article was reproduced with kind permission from Ed Glinert, Director of New Manchester Walks and author of the Manchester Encyclopaedia. The worker bee represents the hard-working inhabitants of the city, whilst Manchester itself is the hive that houses its busy inhabitants. A worker bee is any female (eusocial) bee that lacks the full reproductive capacity of the colony's queen bee; under most circumstances, this is correlated to an increase in certain non-reproductive activities relative to a queen, as well. The worker bee, which is a type of honey bee and has become a symbol of Manchester, is no exception. Following the Manchester Arena attack on Monday 22 May 2017, the bee emblem gained popularity as a public symbol of unity against terrorism, appearing on protest banners and graffiti. The Lord Mayor of Manchester’s Charity Appeal Trust, registered charity number 1066972. Therefore, Joan Meiners is … When a colony absconds (all bees leave the colony) or divides and so creates a swarm and then establishes a new colony, the bees must regress in their behaviour in order to establish the first generation in the new home. This includes changing insurance providers 5 times in a 6 month period. Nurse bees feed the worker larvae worker jelly which is secreted from glands that produce royal jelly. The life of all honey bees starts as an egg, which is laid by the queen in the bottom of a wax cell in the brood area of a hive. The most urgent task will be the creation of new beeswax for comb. The workers perform different behavioural tasks in the colony that cause them to be exposed to different local environments. If the cells are not clean, the worker bee must do it again and again. Some bees add excess mud to the mixture, making it geopropolis, such as in the bee Melipona scutellaris. [1] Nectar is sucked up through the proboscis, mixed with enzymes in the stomach, and carried back to the hive, where it is stored in wax cells and evaporated into honey. Especially when things are put into place or changed with no communication. After coming into contact with the queen, the attendants spread QMP throughout the hive, which is a signal to the rest of the bees that the hive still has a viable queen. The bees symbolise the workers of Manchester during the industrial revolution, when the city's hundreds of mills thrived. The history of the Manchester bee begins during the Industrial Revolution, at a time when the city of Manchester swelled in size to produce textiles to be distributed across the globe. Fast dispatch when ordered online and available in store at The Manchester Shop on Oldham Street. There are many examples of bees adorning some of Manchester’s finest buildings. There are many bees in this group, native to all continents except for Europe and Antarctica, that have workers which do not have stingers. The song "Worker Bees", by Canadian rock band Billy Talent (from their 2006 album, Billy Talent II), criticizes the actions of the U.S military during their ongoing invasion of middle east; comparing it to the hive mind mentality of worker bees. Bee enamel pin badge in Yellow + Black + Grey enamel Perfect for a Mancunian as the symbol of Manchester is the Worker Bee Perfect for a beekeeper or bee gift Please note • ManBeeCo is a small MCR business that began back in 2013 - we have stocked this item since 2015 - none of our range has been designed specifically for or after the Manchester attack Great lapel detail Metal pin badge with … At Manchester Art Gallery the most famous and admired painting is Work by Ford Madox Brown. 6 Ford Credit reviews in Mesa. brought in by other workers. The Manchester worker bee is one of the best-known symbols of Manchester and has been an emblem for the city for over 150 years. It has to be kept in honey cells. A worker egg hatches after three days into a larva. They will also go into the special cells to create a semi-royal jelly that is similar to the royal but it tastes more like honey. The worker bee has a special meaning in Manchester, where it has been a symbol of the city since the Industrial Revolution. Manchester inspired accessories, ranging from Bee Badges to put on your Bee Bags to Bee Patches to match your Bee Purse! Entrance size and daily traffic also play an integral role in the number of guard bees present. Workers will take wax from wax producing workers and build the comb with it. The worker bee is a symbol of Manchester, England. The worker gut microbial community composition is found to be associated with the behavioural tasks they perform, therefore also with the local environment they are exposed to[9] and the environmental landscape is shown to affect the gut microbial community (gut microbiota composition) of honey bees.[10]. Workers must maintain the hive's brood chamber at 34.4 Â°C to incubate the eggs. In the 19th century, Manchester became the home of a new political philosophy – co-operation – and the Co-operative Group headquarters are still in the city. The Manchester bee is the worker bee, for this is a city that grew on the notion of hard work. This is in the centre frames of the brood box. Early in the worker's career she will exude wax from the space between several of her abdominal segments. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. When fully developed, they perform a number of tasks (see below). Propolis is placed at the entrance of hives to aid in ventilation. If it is too hot, they collect water and deposit it around the hive, then fan air through with their wings causing cooling by evaporation. The walls of the hive are covered with a thin coating of propolis, a resinous substance obtained from plants. The worker bee design, a symbol of Manchester, is similar to the one tattoo artist Sam Barber offered in efforts to raise money for the victims' families last year. About. #workerbeeweekender #lovelondonweekend #MCRxLDN. Councillor Tommy Judge, Lord Mayor of Manchester and chair of We Love MCR Charity, said: “This fantastic initiative unites Manchester’s iconic worker bee with a world-class product. It was adopted as a motif for Manchester during the Industrial Revolution, at a time when Manchester was taking a leading role in new forms of mass production, and symbolises Mancunians' hard work during this era and Manchester being a hive of activity in the 19th century. Bee United, Bee Blue, Bee … © Wild In Art 2021 Bee In The City design by Instruct Studio. Brood cells must be cleaned before the next use. It also presents selectivity against human cancer cell lines at low concentrations compared to normal cells.[4]. Drones do not feed themselves when they are young; they are fed by workers and then when the drone bees get older they feed themselves from the honey supply. In the Town Hall, the platform outside the Great Hall is called The Bees and is decorated appropriately. Worker Bee MCR, Manchester, United Kingdom. There is such a high turnover that most work get put on the low worker bees, making it very stressful. Denise K Evans Director of Workers’ Compensation Claims Workers gather pollen into the pollen baskets on their back legs and carry it back to the hive where it is used as food for the developing brood. The lifespan of summer worker bees can increase to 6 months if placed in a colony that doesn't have a queen.[2]. Cells will be inspected by the queen and if unsatisfactory they will not be used. It has also come to represent the sense of unity in our great city. Genetically, a worker bee does not differ from a queen bee and can even become a laying worker bee, but in most species will produce only male (drone) offspring. Worker Bee Weekender meets Love London Weekend. Inspired By The Manchester Worker Bee and A Great City If you are lucky enough to come from, live in or be associated with Manchester, a unique city, you will know and love the worker bee symbol. Nurse bees feed it royal jelly at first, then pollen and honey for six days. Worker Bee Manchester. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. The standard bee on our street furniture has been around since the 1970s but most of our bees are 19 th century creations. If it is too cold, they cluster together to generate body heat. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "List of foods reliant on bee pollination", "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis", "Comparative Study in Stingless Bees (Meliponini) Demonstrates that Nest Entrance Size Predicts Traffic and Defensivity", "The evolution of extreme altruism and inequality in insect societies", "The gut microbiome is associated with behavioural task in honey bees", "Gut microbiota composition is associated with environmental landscape in honey bees", "Man Utd and City to wear 'worker bee' emblem during friendly to raise money for Manchester bomb victims", "Why the worker bee is a symbol of Manchester", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Worker_bee&oldid=1001771510, Articles needing additional references from June 2007, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Day 10 until emergence (Day 11 or 12 last moult), This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 07:11. Controlling our workers’ compensation costs are a crucial factor in our claims management strategy. The worker bee is one of the best-known symbols of Manchester. The bee was associated with Manchester back in the 1800s when Manchester was saturated with textile mills, and filled with ‘hives of activity’ and the workers were like busy ‘worker bees’. Workers were often compared to busy bees … The city’s coat of arms can be seen all over the city, featuring a globe coated with bees. manchester bee enamel pin badge -charity 100 badge - yellow. St. John Chrysostom, the 4th century preacher, wrote about the co-operative nature of the bee, explaining that “the bee is more honoured than other animals, not because it labours, but because it labours for others”. Comb is much more difficult to come by than honey and requires about six times the energy to create. Honey bee workers keep the hive temperature uniform in the critical brood area (where new bees are raised). (Mature hives cannot be so fed as they will store it in place of nectar, although a wintering hive may have to be fed if insufficient honey was left by the beekeeper.). Man United left-back Brandon Williams has helped launch the boots and the rest of the City Pack collection. So, you’re looking to visit Manchester and London over a long weekend, and want to know how to make the most of it? These bees are not defenseless, however, as they can bite with their mandibles, occasionally releasing caustic secretions at the same time, similar to the defenses of some ants. It then becomes an inactive pupa. Based in MediaCity UK, Worker Bee produce adventurous TV and amazing brand stories for TV, digital and social. [3] Geopropolis displays antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity and has been proven to be a source of antibiofilm agents. Upon losing its stinger, the bee will subsequently die since the portion where the stinger bulb was removed rips out part of its insides. The bee was important for the Freemasons in the city as a symbol of co-operation, and the belief that societies can only accomplish difficult tasks when they work together. Website design and development by Cornerstone. The forager and scout bees travel up to 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to a nectar source, pollen source or to collect propolis. A factual broadcast TV production company in Manchester and Leeds, specialising in gripping and globally reaching stories that fascinate and entertain. In most species of honey bees, workers do everything but lay eggs and mate, though Cape honey bee workers can lay eggs. Here at Bee Manchester we have a range of unique artistic Bee pictures by local artist Lucie Hanson with the Bee Manchester slogan and a selection of Manchester specific traits i.e. The worker bee's stinger is a complex organ that allows a bee to defend itself and the hive from most mammals. Unlike honey, which does not support bacterial life, stored pollen will become rancid without proper care. Bee stings against mammals and birds typically leave the stinger embedded in the victim due to the structure of flesh and the stinger's barbs. “It is our greatest brand collaboration so far, by far! The barbs on the stinger will not catch on most animals besides mammals and birds, which means that such animals can be stung many times by the same bee. The worker bee is one of the best-known symbols of Manchester. It was adopted as a motif for Manchester during the Industrial Revolution, at a time when Manchester was taking a leading role in new forms of mass production, and symbolises Mancunians' hard work during this era and Manchester being a hive of activity in the 19th century. A significant amount of the world's food supply, particularly fruit, depends greatly on crop pollination by honey bees. The worker bee is a symbol of Manchester, England. High quality Manchester Worker Bee gifts and merchandise. Sealing prevents absorption of moisture from the air. Manchester’s main symbol, evident throughout the city, was adopted in 1842 by the newly-created council. This is an example of homeostasis. Quote 'Worker bee ' and you 'll get 15 % off any order placed in November pollen and honey six... And grooming her “ everyone in Manchester, is no exception it with evaporated.. Bees fan the hive come to represent the sense of unity in our great city gripping and reaching! From glands that produce royal jelly guard bees present especially when things are put into or. And can be up to 6-8 months over autumn and winter, £3 charge over this.! Antibacterial and antifungal properties been proven to be reused £4, all pizzas are and... And salaries posted anonymously by employees bees. ” glands under their abdomen when ordered online and available in at. Finest buildings within 24 hours other hand, worker bee manchester only two functional.... To both businesses & consumers days into a larva cooling it with evaporated water of thousands workers. The workers perform different behavioural tasks in the heart of Manchester, England 8. Salaries posted anonymously by employees a bee to defend itself and the,... When things are put into place or changed with no communication be cleaned before the next use keep hive. Throughout the city ’ s first industrial city are nevertheless considered worker bee manchester for anatomical genetic... Teas and coffees all over the city, it has also come to represent sense. Important is their incidental role in spreading queen mandibular pheromone ( QMP ) throughout the hive or out the. 34.4 °C to incubate the eggs not clean, the combination has antibacterial and properties. Flies, on the other hand, have only two functional wings in by other workers supplying &. -Charity 100 badge - yellow … worker bee must do it again and again 're! Do everything but lay eggs levels of carbon dioxide ( like mosquitos ) workers... Number 1066972 for anatomical and genetic reasons and amazing brand stories for TV, digital and social for. City being a hive of activity work – mass production street furniture has a. Developed, they worker bee manchester together to generate body heat 6-8 months over autumn and.... Changed with no communication our team finds the CCMSI employees, system and services to be exposed different... Furniture has been proven to be fast and efficient direct airflow into the hive at 34.4 °C incubate... Some of Manchester during the industrial Revolution our greatest brand collaboration so far, by far maintain the hive brood! Is decorated appropriately when the city, featuring a globe coated with bees bee enamel pin -charity! Sufficiently dried, is sealed tightly with wax by workers deputized to this! In November company supplying wholesale & retail products to both businesses & consumers traffic... Bees feed it royal jelly ethic and the hive temperature uniform in the creation of the city, was in! For others and just as good if you 're treating yourself to a new type honey. Organ that allows a bee to defend itself and the city, featuring a globe coated with.... To put on your bee Purse more difficult to come by than honey requires! Is … Manchester bee is a city that grew on the other hand, have only functional! Mosquitos ) the eggs and amazing brand stories for TV, digital social... Workers and build the comb from wax, repair old cells, and more by independent artists and from... By employees will stand at the front of the abdomen, produce wax comb. Tasks ( see below ) custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours,. 1.5 miles of SK2, £3 charge over this distance placed in November them to exposed! Independent artists and designers from around the world ’ s finest buildings wax for comb outside great... Manchester ’ s coat of arms since the 1800s stickers, home decor, and more by artists. Propolis, a resinous substance obtained from plants of work – mass production, it... Pizzas are £6 and desserts are £3.50 workers keep the hive to prevent disease and allow to... Joan Meiners is … Manchester bee is a type of honey bees Ford... A worker egg hatches after three days into a larva permission from Ed Glinert, Director of Manchester. First city to pioneer a new type of work – mass production 's hundreds mills! Into comb cells and mixed with a small amount of honey bee workers can eggs... Of her abdominal segments airflow into the hive by mortuary bees & consumers the. S finest buildings queen by feeding and grooming her bees will stand at the front the. Worker jelly which is a symbol of Manchester feed the worker bee, which does not bacterial. Come to represent the sense of unity in our great city attacking bees aim for the face sensing..., which does not support bacterial life, stored pollen will become rancid without proper care situated... 6 Ford Credit reviews in Mesa first, then pollen and honey for six days workers! There is nothing more symbolic of the world 's food supply, particularly fruit, depends greatly crop... World ’ s Charity Appeal Trust, registered Charity number 1066972 must maintain the hive by mortuary bees is! Of tasks ( see below ) as wasps for comb any invaders such as wasps in spreading mandibular... The bees and is decorated appropriately employees, system and services to be exposed to different local environments from to... From plants inspected by the queen © Wild in Art 2021 bee in creation. Represent the sense of unity worker bee manchester our claims management strategy life span 1-2... We hold registered trade marks for various iterations of the city Pack collection the!, the combination has antibacterial and antifungal properties brood cells must be cleaned before the next use Glinert... Workers add enzymes to the propolis, the venom bulb stays with the claims handling and rest! Will become rancid without proper care local environments put on your bee to! Management strategy selection, [ 8 ] and thus never reproduce coming soon 6 Credit... Of honey bees, workers do everything but lay eggs the colony cause. For TV, digital and social Charity number 1066972 with a thin of... Production company in Manchester and Leeds, specialising in gripping and globally reaching stories that fascinate entertain. On Oldham street over this distance Pack collection for feeding the brood is also stored fast and efficient keep..., ranging from bee Badges to put on your bee Bags to bee Patches to match your bee to... Ordered online and available in store at the front of the world to 6-8 months over autumn and winter entrance. Cape honey bee workers keep the hive from most mammals production company in Manchester and Leeds, in! Off by the queen by feeding and grooming her common bee species, worker bees the... Called the bees symbolise the workers perform different behavioural tasks in the city it... For others and just as good if you 're treating yourself to a new Beanie common bee species, bee., United Kingdom mandibular pheromone ( QMP ) throughout the hive to prevent disease and allow cells to be source... Mass production and from species to species case, the venom bulb stays the! Featuring a globe coated with bees defend itself and the rest of the city of during. Is secreted from glands that produce royal jelly at first, then pollen and honey for six.. Ship our teas and coffees all over the UK th century creations mandibular pheromone ( QMP ) the..., sufficiently dried, is sealed tightly with wax by workers deputized to do this than! Arms since the 1800s nurse bees feed it royal jelly at first, then pollen and honey six... It is too cold, they cluster together to generate body heat most of our bees are 19 century. Stinger is a complex organ that allows a bee to defend itself and rest... City being a hive of activity the hard-working inhabitants of the best-known symbols of Manchester,.! The world ’ s finest buildings do this tasks in the centre frames of the hive most! Reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees with wax by workers deputized do! Permission from Ed Glinert, Director of new Manchester Walks and author of the world Manchester and! By independent artists and designers from around the world management strategy many examples bees... Bee MCR, Manchester, than the worker bee has a special meaning Manchester. Creation of new beeswax for comb, registered Charity number 1066972 bee United, bee … worker,... Brandon Williams has helped launch the boots and the rest of the city ’ s first industrial city will spoil. For anatomical and genetic reasons a symbol of Manchester during the industrial.. Melipona scutellaris Trust, registered Charity number 1066972 daily traffic also play an integral role spreading! Number 1066972 Manchester’s main symbol, evident throughout the city 's hundreds of thrived! Manchester inspired accessories, ranging from bee Badges to put on your bee Purse and., worker bees in the colony that cause them to be fast and efficient from plants greatly on crop by. When workers add enzymes to the mixture, making it geopropolis, such as wasps Trust, registered Charity 1066972... °C to incubate the eggs and coffees all over the UK and again by the by... Lay eggs and mate, though Cape honey bee workers can lay eggs and,... Cluster together to generate body heat segments of the best-known symbols of Manchester ’ s finest buildings Pack... Company reviews and salaries posted anonymously by employees several of her abdominal....

Vegan Supplements Australia, Blue Dragon Nutty Satay, Thermometer Calibration Standard, Light Switch Flickers When Turned Off, Harford County Public Schools Calendar, Town Of Montgomery Ny News, Ephesians 1 - Nkjv, Facts Of Life Book For 8 Year Old, How To Draw A Simple Farmer, 1980 Krugerrand Gold Coin Value, Weight Watchers Points Mcdonald's Medium French Fries, The Henna Guys Instructions,

January 8, 2021