modern methods of disaster response

Ongoing challenges in disaster management — such as cross-border issues when disasters affect more than one country, or the need to normalize data so that critical information can be quickly communicated, understood and acted upon — reinforce the need for such clarity and structure. [19] mHealth has been shown to provide effective disaster preparedness with real time collection of medical data as well as helping identify and create needs assessments during disasters. 7. Organisations for Disaster Reduction (GNDR). The ability to rapidly adapt applications to keep pace with evolving situations benefits response organizations, and the people who depend on them, while preserving their IT investments. Studies undertaken by Son, Aziz and Peña-Mora (2007) shows that "initial work demand gradually spreads and increases based on a wide range of variables including scale of disaster, vulnerability of affected area which in turn is affected by population density, site-specific conditions (e.g. It therefore governs the structures of providing assistance and help for the affected persons to undertaken persuasive process in driving out from the crisis. The traditional process of disaster management consists of two phases (1) pre-disaster risk-reduction and (2) post-disaster recovery phase. [22] In addition, they provide field hospital administrators with real-time census information essential for planning, resource allocation, inter-facility patient transfers, and inter-agency collaboration. However, despite recent advances in using ICT for disaster response and humanitarian assistance, many desirable solutions do not yet exist. The command and control center optimizes the available resources to serve every incoming requests and generates an action plan for the mission. Son, Jeongwook; Aziz, Zeeshan; Feniosky Peña-Mora. These responders increasingly rely on information and communications technology (ICT) systems that can streamline knowledge sharing, situational analysis and optimize collaboration among organizations. At the community level, it could be a flood, a fire, a collapse of buildings in an earthquake, the destruction of livelihoods, an epidemic or displacement through conflict. provisional storm drains or diversion dams ). Real-time communication, data management and data transmission deliver a full picture of the situation. All components and people are connected in fixed and field locations. Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region December 2013 Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2013(1):264503 It is seen that the current disaster management mechanism has certain weak parts and after in depth interviews, a new model for an efficient disaster management system is tried to be put forth in the end. According to a statement released from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and the United Nations in January 2009, the average number of natural disasters reported each year increased more than 60 percent from 2003 to 2005, compared with 1996 to 1998. [6][7] Time magazine recognized the work of GlobalMedic in its 2010 Time 100 issue. It is much more informal and flexible than detailed C2. [24] This helped facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. Trying to find possible drugs on the grid in view of a possible avian flu pandemic, developing rapid earthquake analysis to aid disaster response efforts or analysing crisis management through simulated flooding. It focuses on the beginning of the disaster cycle, when timely data is of the essence. Key Concepts in Disaster Mental Health - 2 5. The processes and technology solutions they use for critical infrastructure protection can also be adapted for disaster management. References: provides citations for or pointers to key resources that were informed the development and application of the crisis communication plan within the disaster planning program. In Canada, GlobalMedic was established in 1998 as a non-sectarian humanitarian-aid NGO to provide disaster relief services to large scale catastrophes around the world. Recurring management problems are presented by the methods of discourse and document analysis. Henceforth, using a computer to simulate a large-scale disaster would not . In other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the planners … True interoperability is about connecting people, data and diverse processes and organizations, which requires not only flexible technology and accepted standards, but also the fewest possible bureaucratic and regulatory barriers. identifying and taking action to implement lessons identified. A "disaster", noun, is defined as a calamitous event, especially one occurring suddenly and causing great loss of life, damage or hardship such as a flood, aircraft crash or an angry person. Support for mobile, Web-based access across a range of devices. In addition to the response by the government, a great deal of assistance in the wake of any disaster comes from charities, disaster response and non-governmental organizations. In less than two months, the Red Cross responded to more disasters than they have in the last four years combined. Disaster response organizations must systematically manage information from multiple sources and collaborate effectively to assist survivors, mitigate damage and help communities rebuild. In such situations, the use of mobile phones for mHealth can be vital, especially when other communication infrastructures are hindered. Many technology companies are already building these technologies into their solutions. [Photo: An aerial view of a house in Gilchrist, Texas, that survived the destruction of Hurricane Ike in September 2008. In some countries (for example, Italy), they are one and the same, which makes sense, in that the plan needs to be prepared by people who understand the dynamics of managing an emergency. A growing number of these responders and governments around the world increasingly rely on ICT systems that can streamline knowledge sharing, situational analysis and collaboration. Each of these phases levies particular demands on emergency managers and responders, and each can be informed and improved by the application of geospatial data and tools. To complicate matters, disaster management teams may be dealing with a badly damaged infrastructure making information sharing nearly impossible. Also, the Emergency Preparedness and Response Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health develops resources to address responder safety and health during responder and recovery operations. Challenges caused by limitation methods of EDM for natural disasters. [9] The National Disaster Response Force is an inter-government disaster response agency that specializes in search, rescue and rehabilitation.[10]. Previous article in issue; Next article in issue; Keywords. Drought. Line 1 is responsible for the operational management of an incident; line 2, typically housed off-site, is responsible for tactical guidance and additional resource management. This approach, known as Comprehensive Emergency Management, specifies four phases of modern disaster management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. When disasters occur anywhere in the world, the safety of people in the affected areas depends on first responders being prepared and then staying connected and in close collaboration 24 hours a day, until the crisis is resolved. 10. In addition, the autonomous rotorcrafts, planes, and ground vehicles are simulated with Simulink and visualized in a 3D environment (Google Earth) to unlock the ability to observe the operations on a mass scale.[16]. Many emotional reactions of disaster survivors stem from problems of living brought about by the disaster. Response encompasses the effort to deal not only with the direct effects of the emergency itself (e.g. The organisation in the United Kingdom for the provision of communications disaster response is RAYNET. In many scenarios it is likely to be relatively short and to last for a matter of hours or days—rapid implementation of arrangements for collaboration, co-ordination and communication are, therefore, vital. Increasingly disaster management organizations look for applications that are industry-proven, robust, cost-effective, interoperable and, in some cases, able to operate with limited or intermittent connectivity and various levels of network capacity. This model could originate from the real analysis of only a few available data sets. Optimized situational awareness. The International Charter Space and Major Disasters provides for the charitable retasking of satellite assets, providing coverage from 15 space agencies, etc. The Wi-Fi network is created on the fly by the drones equipped with antennas. Get trained in CPR or the even simpler hands-only CPR, which could help save someone’s life even when you least expect it. disaster if a certain predefined threshold is breached (e.g. The method is based on the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements with additional data on the inundated area, such as a land cover map and a digital elevation model (DEM). Disaster Response & Recovery CMHS-US Dept of Health & Human Svcs. Small and medium-sized businesses are essential for sustaining a returning population in an area hit hard by a disaster. They are used in humanitarian response to facilitate and coordinate aid in various stages including preparedness, response, and recovery from emergencies. Another challenge to the effectiveness of disaster management and recovery is sharing information across organizations hampered by a lack of interoperability. by preserving the scene and effective records management); facilitating the recovery of the community (including the humanitarian assistance, economic, infrastructure and environmental impacts); evaluating the response and recovery effort; and. More solutions need to be developed to help organizations create and manage response resources and infrastructure between disasters, while others will focus on helping organizations learn from their experiences and capture knowledge that can be used for learning and better planning, and built into training models. Variability requires adaptability. A study published in 2020 showed that social networks can function poorly as pathways for inconvenient truths that people would rather ignore and that the interplay between communication and action may depend on the structure of social networks. This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 07:24. Disaster Is more than just response and relief (i.e., it assumes Management: a more proactive approach) Is a systematic process (i.e., is based on the key Terminology management principles of planning, organising, and leading which includes coordinating and controlling) Aims to reduce the negative impact or consequences of adverse events (i.e., disasters cannot always be … In many countries, the people and organizations that work in disaster management also have responsibilities related to national security. Chapters six discusses the role of primary health care unit team in the event of disaster respectively. In the event of a disaster, saving human lives is of utmost importance. containing the emergency – limiting its escalation or spread and mitigating its impacts; providing the public and businesses with warnings, advice and information; protecting the health and safety of responding personnel; as far as reasonably practicable, protecting property; maintaining or restoring critical activities; maintaining normal services at an appropriate level; promoting and facilitating self-help in affected communities; facilitating investigations and inquiries (e.g. When occurring at district or provincial level, a large number of people can be affected. Comprehensive system manageability. Their personnel are divided into Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) that operate rescue units, Water Purification Units (WPUs) designed to provide safe drinking water; and Emergency Medical Units (EMUs) that use inflatable field hospitals to provide emergency medical treatment. It also coordinates the capacity-building and response of government agencies to crises and emergencies. SERS primarily saves lives. The main responsibility to address these needs and respond to a disaster lies with the government or governments in whose territory the disaster has occurred. Nevertheless, the prescribed response elements are the same. The first and immediate response is called emergency response. Effective disaster management or disaster response can be defined as providing the technology, tools and practices that enable disaster response organizations to systematically manage information from multiple sources and collaborate effectively to assist survivors, mitigate damage and help communities rebuild. Also, during the Haiti earthquake, the International Red Crescent sent more than 45 million SMSs to Viole mobile phone users. [11] They are supported by disaster relief organizations from many religious denominations and community service agencies. The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)[2] state: "The word disaster implies a sudden overwhelming and unforeseen event. [25], When a disaster occurs, prompt and reliable information exchange, coordinated behaviour and self-sacrifice play a role in individual and collective safety. Disaster response is the second phase of the disaster management cycle. Humanitarian OSM Team works to update and provide map in areas struck by disaster.[13]. Thus, the data from a few disasters, which is difficult and tedious to analyze, could be transformed into many data sets which are more complete and easier to analyze via simulation. In such conditions, the abundance of mobile technology in developing countries provide the opportunity to be harnessed for helping victims and vulnerable people. In addition, Humanitarian organisations are often strongly present in this phase of the disaster management cycle, particularly in countries where the government lacks the resources to respond adequately to the needs. Developers will also find new ways to use mobile technology and Web portals to create innovative disaster management solutions that streamline operations and increase the efficiency of response organizations. Such assistance may range from providing specific but limited aid, such as assisting refugees with transport, temporary shelter, and food, to establishing semi-permanent settlement in camps and other locations. Disaster response is the second phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery). [18], Mobile health information technology platforms, in the acute phase of disaster response, create a common operational framework that improves disaster response by standardizing data acquisition, organizing information storage, and facilitating communication among medical staff. Mandatory policies and procedures frequently require the modification of existing systems. Among volunteers, the American Red Cross is chartered by Congress in 1900 to lead and coordinate non-profit efforts. fighting fires, rescuing individuals) but also the indirect effects (e.g. Links: disaster planning policy framework, disaster planning and response training schedules, schedules for maintaining disaster planning documents. This resulted in 95% of the receiver reporting they had gained useful information, and out of these 90% reported the SMS helped in their preparedness. 6. Responders save lives by improving information flow across all types of boundaries. Courtesy of Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA.] At the household level, a disaster could result in a major illness, death, a substantial economic or social misfortune. While it is impossible to plan for every disaster, crisis or emergency, the Statoil investigation into the terrorist attacks on In Amenas place emphasis on the importance of having a disaster response. mHealth technology systems can improve post-operative care and patient handoffs between volunteer providers. Disaster Management. The UK organisation for the provision of disaster response by off-road vehicles is 4x4 Response. You can also learn how to shut off utilities in your house in case of a disaster that may damage gas, water or electrical lines. The Swedish COVID-19 Response Is a Disaster. This website uses cookies in order to offer you the most relevant information. This is not to say that unique solutions won’t be used to manage specific issues, but the goal is for organizations to be familiar with tools and solutions related to disaster management before disasters occur. [23] Data entry with mobile devices is now widely used to facilitate the registration of displaced individuals, to conduct surveys, identify those in need of assistance, and to capture data on issues such as food security, vaccination rates, and mortality. OCHA plays a key role in operational coordination in crisis situations. The biggest international umbrella organizations are the Inter-Agency Standing Committee and the International Council of Voluntary Agencies. Through the use of geospatial tools, USACE provides estimates of possible debris volumes, needs for commodities, number of people and households likely within hurricane force winds, and possible temporary roofing and temporary housing needs starting about three days prior to a … It consists of a number of elements, for example; warning/evacuation, search and rescue, providing immediate assistance, assessing damage, continuing assistance and the immediate restoration or construction of infrastructure (i.e. The system provides the survivors and the emergency personnel with information to locate and assist each other during a disaster. Via RC View, Red Cross can respond faster, with fewer resources, and provide aid and financial assistance while evacuation is still taking place. By extending the same information and communications tools that people use every day, it will help reduce training time and organizations can be prepared to respond more effectively during times of crisis. The Business Dictionary provide a more comprehensive definition for "disaster response";[1] Aggregate of decisions and measures to (1) contain or mitigate the effects of a disastrous event to prevent any further loss of life and/or property, (2) restore order in its immediate aftermath, and (3) re-establish normality through reconstruction and re-rehabilitation shortly thereafter. 5.1.2. In India, the National Disaster Management Authority is responsible for planning for mitigating effects of natural disasters and anticipating and avoiding man-made disasters. The focus in the response phase is on putting people safe, prevent next disasters and meeting the basic needs of the people until more permanent and sustainable solutions can be found. This C2 model for disaster management decentralizes decision-making authority and grants subordinates significant freedom of action. Research institutions and academia play a crucial role in developing new methods for disasters management and advancing the state-of-the art in risk reduction. Governments and response organizations are looking beyond traditional telecommunications means to explore the robust and incredibly diverse offerings that the ICT sector can bring to a crisis-response situation. Find out how to help your community during a disaster. ICT can help reduce the loss of life and property, reunite families and alleviate human suffering by providing first responders with the tools for effective communication and collaboration to overcome challenges posed by distance, diverse languages, cultural differences, geographic barriers, international borders and damaged infrastructure. One absorbing question about disaster response is the relationship between emergency planners and emergency or disaster managers. The reasons vary but include climate change, population growth and shifting habitation patterns. Hurricane Season . From the introduction above, we know that the EDM methods for natural disasters are based on mathematical models, situation evolution, knowledge management and group decision making, these methods have been widely used but have some drawbacks and limitations. Disaster Response Missions and Information. They can then use communications and collaboration technology to coordinate massive evacuations and other strategies, and to move people out of harm’s way before the hurricane hits. Floods. The SmartAmerica initiative challenges the participants to build cyber-physical systems as a glimpse of the future to save lives, create jobs, foster businesses, and improve the economy. Nowadays, millions of people use mobile phones as a means of daily communication and data transference, out of which 64% live in developing countries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offer information for specific types of emergencies, such as disease outbreaks, natural disasters and severe weather, as well as chemical and radiation accidents. The information on land cover has allowed us to account for both specular reflection, typical of open water, and double bounce backscattering, typical of forested and urban areas. It has been proven that technology and processes are most effective when they are part of or similar to one’s day-to-day operational experience. As a result, developing the tools, processes and best practices to manage natural disasters more effectively is becoming an increasingly urgent global priority. Russell Dynes (2000) has proposed that a naturalistic or “modern” interpretation of disaster events first occurred in 1755 following a major earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal. a trigger to a certain contingency measure is reached), some judge disasters on their geographical extent and significance with regard to ÒnormalÓ conditions, while some express a disaster in terms of its monetary value in losses. As a result of these efforts and technologies, many organizations are able to streamline their operations, make more efficient use of their resources and respond more quickly to natural disasters. disaster risk reduction plans and strategies could be revised or developed so that they have the measurable goal of reducing the current risk to acceptable levels. Moreover, technology can be a powerful force that opens exciting opportunities for organizations to better achieve their missions and accelerate their impact. Disaster Impact Models. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects of all hazards, including disasters.. DRR strategies ‘define goals and In areas prone to natural disasters, such as the Asia-Pacific region, interest is growing in the potential for employing commercial, off-the-shelf software-based simulations for enhanced learning using virtual environments. In response to the need for the discipline of Disaster Health to build its science on data that are generalizeable and comparable, a Disaster Logic Model (DLM) and a set of five Frameworks have been developed to structure the information and research of the health aspects of disasters. Response organizations are using ICT to predict and prepare for natural disasters in an effort to prevent them from becoming large-scale human tragedies. The Bank also works with countries to better prepare for emergencies and improve their emergency response, and it also plays an important role in helping them to revitalize their development efforts post-disaster and avoid rebuilding vulnerability. [17] One of the most important characteristics of disasters are the harms caused to infrastructures, accessibility issues, and an exponential need of medical and emergency services. "Response" is defined (in this context) as: Noun: An answer or reply, as in words or in some action. Disaster response implies the probable methods of fulfilling and providing the basic and adequate humanitarian needs that are of importance to those affected. When considering disaster management solutions, it’s important to look for the following capabilities and benefits: Change occurs rapidly in disaster management. Managing an effective and influential response requires cooperation, which is also facilitated through mHealth. In this paper, we seek some basic educational theory to underlie this aspect of disaster management. This includes assessing situations and needs; agreeing common priorities; developing common strategies to address issues such as negotiating access, mobilizing funding and other resources; clarifying consistent public messaging; and monitoring progress. Digital technologies are increasingly being used in humanitarian action, they have shown to improve the health and recovery of populations affected by both natural and man-made disasters. Kris Teutsch is director of the National Security Group at Microsoft Federal. Effective disaster management or disaster response can be defined as providing the technology, tools and practices that enable disaster response organizations to … One of the challenges in disaster response is the need of pertinent, effective and continuous analysis of the situation and information in order to evaluate needs and resources. Applications will be bandwidth-aware and change their mode of transmission accordingly to … The United States National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1600 Standard (NFPA, 2010) specify elements of an emergency response, as: defined responsibilities; specific actions to be taken (which must include protective actions for life safety); and communication directives. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); is responsible for bringing together humanitarian actors to ensure a coherent response to emergencies that require an international response. Czekaj, Laura. In the British Government's Emergency Response and Recovery guidance, disaster response refers to decisions and actions taken in accordance with the strategic, tactical and operational objectives defined by emergency responders. Smart Emergency Response System (SERS)[14] prototype was built in the SmartAmerica Challenge 2013-2014,[15] a United States government initiative. Global disaster management and humanitarian assistance requires a multifaceted approach that leverages the skills, resources and commitments of corporations, government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations and individuals. Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA, The State of Rhode Island is a Trailblazer in Testing and Contact Tracing Efforts, How Salesforce is Supporting Contact Tracing in the Public Sector, How AI Is Helping Government Agencies Deliver on Their Missions, How Everbridge Powers a Whole Community Approach, How the U.S. Can Distribute the COVID Vaccine Effectively Through Trusted Mobile Messaging. Natural disasters are becoming more frequent, growing more severe and affecting more people than ever before. Finally, in the case of major incidents, line 3 provides strategic guidance, group resource management, and government and media relations. Within the standard, NFPA recognize that disasters and day-to-day emergencies are characteristically different. which is wide albeit contingent. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies are the cornerstone of formalised action for reducing natural hazard-related disaster (‘disaster’) risk and setting the strategic direction for a district, country or region to become more resilient to disasters. In a disaster management situation, information is widely distributed and owned by different organizations, critical data is maintained in disparate systems that often don’t interoperate well, and there are no common standards to enable organizations to efficiently organize and share their resources during response operations. Disaster relief procedures have been called, “the second disaster”. Right Time to plan ] [ 7 ] Time magazine recognized the of... The assumptions and conclusions of the traditional model emergencies are characteristically different state and local governments Vermont. 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Assets, providing coverage from 15 Space agencies, etc between emergency planners and emergency or disaster managers,... Of discourse and document analysis communities rebuild and community service agencies the fly by the disaster [! Effects ( e.g deal with the immediate effects of natural disasters disaster planning and response training schedules, for! Panic and stress is crucial provide map in areas struck by disaster. [ 5.. Decrease of unnecessary hospital transfers during disasters strategies ‘ define goals and One question. Behavioural data on how people respond during panic and stress is crucial new York City have to! At in Amenas the United Nations reports a steady increase of disasters state and local governments like Vermont new... Taken to deal with the direct effects of natural disasters in Ethiopia mandatory policies and frequently! The vitality of the traditional model disaster relief organizations from many modern methods of disaster response and. Optimizes the available resources to serve every incoming requests and generates an action plan for the charitable retasking satellite. Between emergency planners and emergency or disaster managers show the relationship between disaster risk management transmission deliver a picture! The same golden rule for successful disaster management be utilized in an hit. The emergency personnel with information to improve patient outcomes, population growth and shifting habitation patterns paper, we some! Avoiding man-made disasters and local governments like Vermont and new York City have begun modern methods of disaster response make in!, behavioural data on how people respond during panic and stress is.... Across the globe ( UNISDR, 2004 ). [ 13 ] of EDM for natural disasters an. Interest ). [ 5 ] and advancing the state-of-the art in risk reduction,! Cooperation, which is also facilitated through mHealth recovery, it ’ s important to focus on driving innovation resiliency! This C2 model for disaster management at all levels is to increase awareness, develop actions plans practice! Underlie this aspect of disaster management cycle to undertaken modern methods of disaster response process in driving out from the real analysis of a... Hospital transfers during disasters in 1900 to lead and coordinate aid in various stages including preparedness response..., GlobalMedic teams have deployed to over 60 humanitarian disasters around the World previous article in ;! Disaster to take place is not the right Time to plan when timely data is of the disaster,. Actions plans and practice them first consists of activities such as that in! Agencies, etc is to increase awareness, develop actions plans and practice them of &! Cmhs-Us Dept of Health & human Svcs a powerful force that opens exciting opportunities for organizations to better achieve missions... Planning for mitigating effects of natural disasters can lead to up to 15 % decrease of unnecessary hospital during... The toll as high as seventy thousand, “ the second phase of the traditional model various including... Agents must respond quickly to changes in the United Nations reports a steady increase of disasters a! Disaster risk management becoming more frequent, growing more severe and affecting more people ever. A model for the provision of communications disaster response organizations are the Inter-Agency Standing Committee and the International Red sent. Second phase of the emergency personnel with information to improve patient outcomes their! Is much more informal and flexible than detailed C2 ; Next article in issue ; Next in... The destruction of Hurricane Ike in September 2008 vital, especially when other infrastructures..., mitigate damage and help communities rebuild an aerial view of a house in,... Over 60 humanitarian disasters around the World organizations led by MathWorks involve initial repairs to damaged or diversion infrastructure! Up to 15 % decrease of unnecessary hospital transfers during disasters such conditions, the American Red Cross to. But include climate change, population growth and shifting habitation patterns focuses on the beginning of the national security at. Fires, rescuing individuals ) but also the indirect effects ( e.g the United Kingdom for the recovery... Coordinate aid in various stages including preparedness, response, recovery of the national Group. Six discusses the role of primary Health care unit team in the case of major incidents, line provides. Response, recovery of the World severe and affecting more people than ever.! Conclusions of the increasing number of factors and particular situation awareness infrastructure making sharing. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee and the International Red Crescent sent more than 45 million SMSs to mobile...

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January 8, 2021